We are today introducing an exceptionally gifted Romanian writer: Radu Mărculescu.
Radu Mărculescu was born in 1915 in Bucharest. He graduated in 1938 with a diploma in Letters and Philosophy. Between 1939 and 1942 he taught Romanian language at two secondary schools in Bucharest. As an officer of the Romanian Royal Army he fought in the Don River battle and was taken prisoner in 1942. He was freed from the Soviet camps in 1951. Between 1959 and 1964 he was once again imprisoned, this time by the Romanian communist regime.
Pătimiri şi iluminări din captivitatea sovietică (Suffering and Enlightenment in Soviet Captivity) is a book of memoirs covering the period that he spent in Soviet camps. The book had three editions (2000, 2007 and 2010) and was also translated into German (Leid und Offenbarung in der sowjetischenGefangenschaft, C&N Verlag, Berlin, 2008).
What follows is our translation of the pilot chapter of Suffering and Enlightenment in Soviet Captivity (Pătimiri și iluminări din captivitatea sovietică).
Suffering and Enlightenment in Soviet Captivity
I dedicate this book of suffering, but also of enlightenment, to Ligia, my beloved wife and companion of my journey through the insane totalitarian aeon.
January 3, 1991
This night, as in so many nights before, my dreams were seeded with signals coming from a distant past, when I lived behind barbed wires and bars. Once again, a message was being delivered to me. Wearing a shepherd’s fur coat, which touched the ground, and a Russian hat with black ear flaps, hanging apart like a tired raven’s wings, a giant appeared in my dream. He held in one hand a smoking rifle and in the other a leash. A red crook-legged Teckel was frantically pulling on the leash. It was trying to lick a blood trail on the snow that had meanwhile invaded my room. Pulled by the small dog, which followed the red trail with its tongue, the giant crossed what had all of a sudden become a large room, filled with superposed beds. Then he disappeared.
I instantly recognized the two – man and dog.
He marched last, behind the guards of our column. We had been taken prisoners in the Don River battle and forced into an insane march, marathon of death by freezing through the immensity of the Russian winter. When one of us remained behind, frostbitten, felled by hunger or exhausted, he would gently drag him to the edge of the road and anoint him with a shot in the forehead. He would then wait until the dwarf dog completed the ritual washing of the dead body, by licking the blood off the face of the one relieved of life’s burden. They then moved to the next one.
To my mind, he and the dog had since then grown into archetypal characters, doorkeepers to the Kingdom of the Dead. As such, they have transgressed the boundaries of the real world and found refuge in my dreams. They have visited me quite often over the years, and each of their night appearances brought me some message from the other world. What message were they now carrying from the buried world of those fourteen years of confinement? For, indeed, that world is still alive. It has crept into my subconscious, somewhere under the horizon of mystery, as Blaga would say, and it keeps on sending me, be they only allusive, signs, warnings or even premonitions. Night after night my dreams are haunted, if not by clear scenes from war imprisonment or detention – this seldom happens, then at least by some minute detail, a feeling of constraint or anxiety, an ominous or indefinite something that unmistakably evokes detention.
In a sense, I live two parallel lives: I am a free man during the day and a prisoner during the night. When the curtain falls on the day-time performance, I wrap myself up in my prisoner coat or in my striped detention uniform and I go down the dream staircase to my concentrationary inferno. Mircea Eliade once wrote about a king who had one night dreamt that he was a butterfly. When he awoke, he was confused: Was he a man who had dreamt that he was a butterfly or a butterfly that had dreamt that it was a man? I have a similar dilemma: Am I a free man who has dreamt that he was a prisoner or a prisoner who has dreamt that he was a free man? And I am not the only one. Friends of mine, either prisoners of war or political prisoners, reluctantly confess to having sometimes experienced similar sinister dream worlds marked by barbed wire or by more cryptic and sophisticated signs, all of them bearing the same indelible stamp of life in confinement.
Granted: I bear full responsibility for the forceful resurfacing of this underground world with all its infernal monsters and demented fears. I am the one who provoked it as soon as I started to write my memoirs. I had envisaged, among others, doing this as an attempt to decode and, hence, neutralize the signs that obsessively haunted my dreams. (I must have taken Freud seriously.) In fact, all I managed to do was to get this world of monsters stirred up and to set it on me even more fiercely. I knew that I had embarked on an adventure that entailed a descensus ad inferos and the consequent risks, but I couldn’t help it. The matter went beyond exorcizing the maleficent underground worldin the depths of my being – a therapeutic experiment that has definitively failed. (In my dreams I will probably remain both a war prisoner and a political prisoner till the end of my life. It is my cross to bear!)
When I set out reliving, night after night, moments of an exhumed inferno, I also had in mind a purpose that I do consider well worth suffering for and that I hope I would be able to attain. I simply wanted to rewrite the journey of our captivity both as a space-time itinerary and, most of all, as an inward, psychological, moral, spiritual journey that we, the prisoners of war, and more precisely the officer prisoners, have madeduring our long slavery in the New (Soviet) Babylon.
Our journey started with the original catastrophe, when we were taken prisoners, or better put, when we were made slaves. Essentially, this was for all of us, to a lesser or a greater extent, also a moral collapse. Some fell to the lowest levels of humanity, bordering on animality. This degradation was caused by the limit situations inflicted on us, as prisoners.
Exhausting marches through the steppes, the plodding along in snow storms and on roads lined with the bodies of those who were not able to keep up, the perpetual, maddening cold, the grinding and mind-numbing hunger that dehumanized relations, especially among rank-and-file soldiers, the death trains with cattle wagons, overcrowded to suffocation, the lice and typhus, the unload of corpses in the railway stations, and above all the lack of perspective and the despair… Such were the biblical calamities and scourges we suffered since the moment we were taken prisoners!
We had barely ascended this ‘mount of suffering’ when, having reached the camps, we were hardly given the time to come to senses and tend to our wounds: The political commissars, a peculiar predator species, immediately assaulted us. With diabolic craft and scientific method they manipulated a combination of constraints (frost, hunger, to which they added forced labour, solitary confinement, terror, denunciation) to unleash upon us the ultimate operation of political enrolment. Thus, a malignant tumour grew within our Romanian community and this tumour would disrupt our lives until its definitive extirpation. I refer to those pitiful legions of dead souls, the so-called voluntary divisions created by the Soviets in the prison camps and meant to bring back home on Soviet tanks the most devastating experiment that a human community, in all its aspects, has ever undergone: communism.
Their mission was to occupy positions in a repressive apparatus that would introduce by force and secure by terror an abnormal system otherwise too weak to be viable on its own. They accomplished this mission with criminal mastery. The processes through which normal people were transformed into enforcers of the Bolshevik torture regime imposed in our country remain a matter of debate. Conducted with means that affected us all, this recruitment process had on us, the majority on the opposite side, a long lasting and traumatizing effect, and forced us to live in a state of permanent anxiety and alert. The delicate mechanism of mutual trust was, in particular, severely disrupted.
When, day by day, people we had least expected joined the enemy camp and we felt the denunciation snake tightening its grip on us, we asked ourselves in confusion: ‘Whom to trust and whom to avoid?’ We had the feeling that wild beasts were lurking all around us.
Mutual trust once lost, isolation settled among us.
We lived next to each other like potatoes in a bag. We were not a whole anymore, but an amorphous mass of isolated individuals, ideally fit for being manipulated by the power. Fortunately, this abnormal situation did not last for too long. In order to survive, not only physically but also morally, we had to escape this nightmare of suspicion and to break the isolation that it created. We had to rebuild mutual trust. Eventually, we succeeded. But we laid a new foundation: character check, common aspirations, identical views on fundamental matters and readiness to contribute, despite sacrifices and risks, to building solidarity according to the musketeer motto: ‘All for one, one for all’.
We quietly evolved from an existence as individuals in a mass to an existence in a community that was based on affinities and fed by comradeship strongly rooted in Christian values. New members were met with trust, respect and even love; and, above all else, they felt protected. Solidarity allowed this community to react efficiently to the power’s brutal and insolent interferences aimed at depriving us of our inner and outer freedom and at sowing into our enslaved conscience the seeds of the basest treason: the treason of nation, of God and, eventually, of self.
A first test of this solidarity was to provide those imprisoned with comradely assistance (a warm coat, a supplement of food that each of us spared and could be given to those in need, at any risk).
In that world dominated by egoism and self-preservation instinct, solidarity among Romanian officers in the camps was truly a miracle of Christian love, which illuminated our existence and softened adversities. It even extended to people of other nations, whom we occasionally met in prison cells and solitary confinement. We reached this solidarity in time, through hardships and sacrifices, but it marked the beginning of our moral healing and it was, above all, the plasma that nourished Resistance in the Romanian prisoners’ camps. Resistance as survival (not only as physical entities, but also as moral-spiritual ones) evolved slowly, through actions and fights. It first manifested as protests against the administration’s abuses and guardians’ brutality. Afterwards, through labour and hunger strikes (first individually, and afterwards in group), we started the fight for our right to dignity, including the elimination of the Romanian officers’ obligation to forced labour, which was for the Soviets an opportunity to subject us to the most humiliating and exhausting toils, in disregard of the Hague Convention, which they too had signed.
Eventually, when we realized that our country’s sovietised government itself, as well as the western world, in which we had naively and fervently believed, had abandoned us in the claws of our oppressors, our resistance group launched a last, desperate, total, life-and-death hunger strike for repatriation.
Therefore, we can bluntly and proudly say that, of all the nations in Soviet captivity, we (Romanian officers, more precisely) were the only ones to have succeeded (in Oranki Monastery camp, in February 1948, through a quasi-unanimous hunger strike, which involved 1500 participants) in forcing the discretionary Soviet power to repatriate us. A prize that we snatched from the power and that allowed to a majority of our officers to return home with their heads unbowed and no blot of treason on their conscience, this repatriation was the apotheosis of our captivity journey. We thus took our revenge for all the humiliations and degradations of this slavery of biblical dimensions and apocalyptic consequences. Our concentrationary journey started in the ontic abyss in which we were thrown by the ‘fall’, and ended in the boundless joy of victory, which brought us the trophy of freedom.
As for me, I did not have the chance to live that magnificent moment. Two years before that event, I had been taken away with a group of so-called agitators and sent to a punishment camp on Volga, the Devil’s Hole, in retaliation for an extended hunger strike at Oranki, where I have buried three and a half years of my life. As a punishment for work refusal we were imprisoned in dreadful solitary confinement cells, death’s antechambers. There, through desperate hunger strike we succeeded to force the local power to acknowledge in writing that we, Romanian officers, were under no obligation to work.
The victories at the Devil’s Hole and Oranki were dearly paid for. Scores of Romanian officers were refused repatriation and, being labelled instigators, were referred to military courts, which staged show trials; for reasons that in no other country would have been considered an offence, they were sentenced to long years of forced labour and deported to polar or Siberian wastelands in camps with infernal regime, alongside the cruellest of Soviet common law criminals. Luckily, even in this realm of evil, occasional thaws led to an important part of these champions of suffering being able to go home, be it even as outlaws or suspects.
These hunger strikes were imitated by prisoners of other nations, unfortunately without success. Naturally, we were deemed instigators of these, too, and our files got heavier. The Soviet power would retaliate against our whole resistance movement, and not only on Soviet territory – like Erinyes they would follow us back home, where NKVD had placed its henchmen in all the key positions of the repressive machine.
Thus, once arrived back in country (in the summer of ‘48), many of the Oranki strikers filled the investigation cells, the prisons and the camps of the new regime. I am in no position to estimate how many of them were victims of NKVD’s revenge and how many got themselves into this situation deliberately, all the more so as their repatriation coincided with the country seething with all sorts of subversive actions against the regime, including military actions in the mountains. In a word, those who had experienced the Soviet inferno and were decided to do anything to stop it from flooding our world could in no way remain passive to the nascent forms of resistance.
But in December 1950, when our group of instigators and reactionaries got ‘repatriated’ (in the Bragadiru camp, where this time our co-nationals have kept us prisoners in our own country for over half of year ) the die had been cast and the communist power had firmly put the yoke around Romanian people’s neck, having destroyed nearly all resistance movements. Still, on July 17, 1951, when the camp of former prisoners was liquidated, and I was freed, 22 comrades of our famous group of former strikers remained behind barbed wires. Without a sentence, they were sent to the Danube – Black Sea Canal forced labour camp, where they continued to toil for three more years – in addition to the nine years of imprisonment that each had already executed. They were freed after one year, when the chief devil, Stalin, dropped dead in a sulphur cloud that darkened half of planet.
This did not put an end to the Soviet oppression of the former prisoners who were active in the resistance movement in camps. In 1957, following the Hungarian revolution, the forced collectivization of agriculture, and in anticipation of the withdrawal from our country, in 1958, of the Soviet occupation troops, Securitate, under the guidance of Soviet counsellors, who were always plenty, unleashed an unprecedentedly fierce terror campaign throughout the country. They fabricated conspiracies, made arrests, conducted investigations under torture, and eventually staged trials. There was a large variety of such judicial actions that swept all over the country.
We, the prisoners active in the resistance movement, were also drawn in this gigantic and demented whirl of trials, being involved in a large-scale show trial. It was, in fact, a cluster of trials, some bigger, others smaller, all gravitating around and being artificially connected to a central trial whose main character was Constantin (Puiu) Atanasiu. He was one of the pillars of resistance in the Soviet camps, and also one of the leaders of the former Legionary Movement. In the theatrical view of Securitate this specific political colour was supposed to reverberate over all those involved in these trials. But in reality things were different. Obviously, prisoners who had been legionaries had an undeniable contribution to the establishment of resistance in the camps, as well as to organizing protests and hunger strikes, including the last and decisive one in February 1948. But to lump them all together under the ‘legionary’ label was a cheap trick used by Securitate in order to cast them in the green light of extremism and readily outlaw them. It rained sentences to death and forced labour for life, not to mention sentences to 20, 15 and 10 years in prison, the latter being perceived as a child’s play. In this galaxy of trials I was placed on a trial orbit together with other three ‘accomplices’ whom I had never met and who hadn’t met one another either. What were we accused of? Conspiracy against the state, of course. Based on what facts? Occasional meetings, small parties among friends, former war prisoners, sometimes accompanied by our families. Moreover, I was accused for having written, while I was in captivity, three poems that were brought back home by friends who, having appreciated them, had memorized them. These poems were rich in symbolism, and their significance, admittedly subversive, eluded the obtuse investigators. They were unable to decrypt them and, to our honour and to my luck, nobody offered them the key. So I resisted the investigation pressures and I rejected the charges against me while the ‘prosecution’ witnesses, despite all intimidation and even tortures inflicted on them (some had been sentenced to death), have obstinately contested in court everything they had purportedly declared against me. To their own amazement, the prosecutors realized that they lacked evidence.
Since they could not sentence me but they were not willing toacquit me either, after one year of waiting in Uranus prison (Bucharest) I was taken to the Danube Delta, to Periprava, where I was informed that the Ministry of Internal Affairs had ordered my ‘administrative arrest’ for 72 months. Euphemism apart, I was convicted to six years of prison without a court sentence. By 1964, when the general pardon decree was issued, I had effectively executed five years out of six.
Thus I came to know the horrors of our mioritic gulag both from ‘first hand’ experience and from the stories of my colleagues of suffering. I started my concentrationary journey in 1942, in the Don’s snow-bound steppe, went through the camps of Tambov, Oranki, Devil’s Hole, Marsansk, Mikhajlovo, Odessa, Sighet, Bragadiru, and after an interlude of eight years of so –called freedom my journey ended in the realm of waters at Periprava in 1964, the year of the amnesty decree.
This was more or less the destiny of all the Romanian prisoners who had joined the resistance movement in the Soviet camps and who, upon repatriation, were labelled “counter-revolutionary” and “enemy of the Soviet Union” by NKVD.
Upon their transfer from the Soviet camps to the Romanian gulag, our prisoners brought a revolutionary spirit, their experience in confronting the repressive apparatus, a particular discourse on dignity and a specific moral code. Given the horrible concentrationary experience in our country (far more brutal than in big brother’s country, as the pupil had surpassed his master) they were initially perceived as romanticists and their experience was judged unproductive. Eventually, the Gospel of solidarity, which they preached, proved to be realistic and salutary armour against the tough blows of the penitentiary regime. Whatever prison they went to, their presence was considered invigorating, heartening and a source of optimism. As for me, wherever I went during this second round of imprisonment, I heard of them only in superlative terms.
For approximately seven years between two waves of persecution, the one immediately after repatriation and the one after the Hungarian revolution, we enjoyed a period of calm (Securitate was busy collecting evidence for the next wave of arrests), but as former prisoners of war we were severely marginalized. With the exception of higher rank officers who were pensioned off, active officers were dismissed from the army and, together with us, reserve officers, were knocking in vain at the doors of institutions and enterprises, being rejected by the sinister ‘cadre’ department. In the end, many of us found refuge in construction cooperatives. Those were times of feverish construction, so they turned a blind eye to our ‘unhealthy’ origin and dubious past and offered us lower end, miserably paid jobs. The constructions field had become a French Foreign Legion of the communist regime, a last refuge for the oppressed former ‘upper classes’. In such a cooperative I found a sordid job. As further reprisal, my family and I were evacuated from our privately owned house and we moved to a hut. To crown it all, ‘Soviet Counsellors’ took lodging in our former house.
I joined a team of ‘glaziers’ (among them a law university professor, a counsellor for a Court of Appeal, a Colonel of the Royal Guard, an Air Force Colonel and a county prefect) in a cooperative where, since all evil leads to a greater good, I met my future wife and my life’s chance, Ligia Manolescu. She came from a family with many ‘former people’ and convicts. Her marriage was shattered (just as mine, by the earthquakes of those times) and she was left with two little children to care for. Hence, as Ibsen beautifully puts it in A Doll’s House, two shipwrecked people joined forces and managed to navigate the ocean of uncertainties of this century. We were not spared of storms coming from the East, but we eventually made it safely to the harbour.
When two former prisoners of war or political prisoners meet by chance, they unwillingly and unconsciously exchange a meaningful glance, as if alluding to a shared secret treasure. Admitting this impression is not entirely subjective, where does it spring from? Its source is the assumption that sufferings allowed them to tap into profound knowledge of the world and life at a level impossible to reach in normal conditions. As if the long road of hardships through the concentrationary world were an initiation voyage at the end of which those who retained their integrity were offered the trophy of real ‘gnosis’: knowledge of life and man, devoid of both clichés and illusions but deeply realistic and, above all, ripe with astounding revelations.
The initiated through detention suffering discovers in astonishment that in limit situations spiritual concentration (also called prayer) increases stamina far beyond the normal limits, to a nearly miraculous level. The initiated through detention suffering thus acknowledges the pre-eminence of spiritual world over the physical one, of inner freedom over fate, and comes to realize that there is always a way out for those with strong spirit, incandescent with concentration. One also discovers that hardships that did not kill him made him even stronger.
The initiated through detention suffering experiences the all-mighty power of love, comradeship and friendship that can melt the ice of egoism, enmity or indifference and transform a concentrationary hell into a Heaven’s doorstill or at least into a bearable place to live. But most of all, he comes to realize that any effort spent out of love and dedication for one’s neighbour, instead of exhausting his strength, incredibly increases it, and thus he understands that transgression of his egoist nature takes him out of the Euclidian universe (in which four minus two is two) and into a realm of existence governed by an altered mathematics (of love), in which giving is not conducive to loss, but to gain (as in the parable of the multiplication of bread). Thus he succeeds, in this life, be it only for a few moments of grace (always coinciding with the toughest trials), to glimpse beyond the curtain that covers the Kingdom of Heaven.
This is the valuable lesson that stayed with us from the teachings of the two great Universities of the concentrationary aeon, ‘captivity as prisoners of war’ and ‘captivity as political prisoners’. Those who had acquired such gains feel they have earned them with the full price of their suffering. It is this assumption of some irrevocably gained goods, be it only half-conscious, which shines behind the allusive smile exchanged by former prisoners when they meet again.
The decisive battles of this end of millennium were not fought exclusively on the battlefield. They were and still are fought in people’s hearts. The human ‘heart’ is this aeon’s Armageddon, the place where the ultimate battle will take place, and at stake is the divine spark we call s o u l.
This is the place where the powers seeking to materialize and subdue the human soul, and hence to disintegrate it, will relentlessly clash until the end of times with the powers that stand for its preservation in the struggle for spiritual fulfilment and freedom. Such a battle was fought in us all along our captivity as prisoners of war and thereafter, as political prisoners. The political power that held us in captivity tried to enslave our souls, too, and transform us into a subhuman product, the ‘new man’, an automaton designed to act in a world of reversed values.
The guiding-thread of this book is our desperate attempt to preserve our ontological identity or our God given ‘image and likeness’, as we strived to resist our captors’ efforts to annihilate our inner freedom.
In this huge concentrationary space (where over-run peoples were also confined), each camp or prison was a ‘gate to hell’, a ‘hell’s vent-hole’ through which the infernal red tide of communist subversion would spill on the earth. It is through these camps and prisons that hell spread its well thought-out techniques for demolishing the human spirit and the natural order of the world. These were laboratories for the homologation and experimentation of all the pedagogical methods (such as the one inspired by Makarenko and applied at Pitești) devised to substitute one’s own self by a Pavlovian self. These were reservoirs of all the political activists, propagandists, informers and torturers who, in groups or legions, invaded their native countries, in a joint criminal effort to convert to evil as many as possible of mankind. Only an in-depth analysis of these two factors, the camp and the prison, can make it possible to understand the tragedy of these 70 years (or 45 plus 7 years); a period of devastation and alienation for a part of the world which had fallen prey to the terrible ordeal at the end of millennium. But since, as Saint Paul the Apostle says, ‘Where sin abounds, grace abounds all the more’, these same camps and prisons were places where, under the highest pressure, human dignity shined in its fullest brightness and transfiguring power, and reached for some, few – indeed, the splendour of holiness. (I am almost afraid that the reader might suspect plagiarism of ‘martirologies’ in some of my pages.) In these same places Satan’s limitations were exposed, since he is not actually all-powerful, and all those who had faith and managed to endure to the end (and they were not few) were able to return home without the mark of the Beast. This is the great pride, satisfaction and compensation for the many and humble whose lives were crushed but who managed to get through the inferno pouches unstained. No one and nothing would take this crown away from such people.
It is for them (as I met quite a number), many of whom have long departed for the ‘other world’, that I crafted this book, striving to gather and link together everything we have lived, gone through and suffered together, in testimony to our desperate, yet touched by tragic greatness, fight to preserve our humanity till the end.
As I engaged in digging up this ossuary of memories, I wondered if I would have the time to complete the deed. I have many years behind me, but little time left. I now believe that this anxiety-ridden question of whether or not I would finish writing took a disguise and started haunting me. It was the giant with his leashed dwarf dog who visited me in my dreams, he who, during the demented march through the snow-bound steppe was a fearful reminder that if I stayed behind the column of prisoners I should become his prey. He was the one who hurried me up to exhaustion.
„Hurry up!… move on!…” He seems to tell me even now, seeing how difficult it is for me to put my pen on snow-white paper.
„Hurry up!… we are still behind you.”
January 10, 1999
It is dawn now. I managed to write ‘the end’ on the last page of the ‘imprisonment’. After a night of writing I am going to sleep, that is to a new encounter with the world of shadows that I carry inside me. I resignedly pull on my striped prison uniform and go down the dream’s spiral staircase until I reach the underground realm whose sky is relentlessly lit by the evil star of our misfortune. Underneath the desolate oniric landscape, buried under oblivion, among barbed wires and bars, lies still a whole world of shadows waiting to be brought to the light of truth. Among them are shadows of the prisoners who participated in the resistance and were politically imprisoned in the Romanian gulag.
Shall I still have the strength and time to fulfil this promise and this duty, too? The spirit is willing, but is the flesh strong enough?
Be therefore happy, beloved reader, with what God shall allow me to tell you here and now! As for the stories that, for lack of time, will remain untold and thus a debt I would owe to you, please bear with me until the Final Judgement Day, when everything that is covered shall be revealed, when no debts shall be left unpaid and all our puzzles shall be solved!
 Lucian Blaga (1885 – 1961) was a Romanian philosopher, poet, playwright and diplomat
Mircea Eliade (1907 – 1986) was a Romanian scholar of religion, philosopher and fiction writer
 Oranki (Nizhny Novgorod region) was until 1918 a Christian Orthodox Monastery. After the Bolshevik revolution it was transformed in prison for Russian political prisoners and deportees. During the Second World War prisoners of war of various nationalities (Romanian, German, Hungarian, Italian and Spanish) were brought here and interned in camps
 In the originalGaura Dracului; many camps in Siberia were dubbed Hell Holes
Romanian secret political police, founded in 1948 by NKVD
Members of the Legionary Movement were also known as the Green Shirts (Cămășile Verzi)
 ‘Mioritic space’ is a concept introduced by Lucian Blaga in a philosophical study about Romanian cultural style. The word ‘Mioritic’ is derived from Mioriţa (Little Lamb), a Romanian folk ballad
 In the original serviciu de ‘cadre’– the name given to the personnel department
In the original gura de rai – a phrase from the Romanian folk ballad Miorița
Anton Makarenko (1888 – 1939): Soviet educator and writer who devised a method of re-education through violence and intimidation that would be applied in Romanian prisons by the communist regime (See Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity)
 Between 1949 and 1952 a re-education through torture experiment was conducted in Pitești prison (See Dennis Deletant, Communist Terror in Romania: Gheorghiu-Dej and the Police State, 1948-1965)